Project Lego Robotics
There are seven active units in this program from the Robotic Academy. They are principally aimed at students that have not used the Lego RCX bricks before.
Unit Links:
Unit 1 Introduction to Robots
Unit 2 Introduction to Hardware
Unit 3 Introduction to Software and Electronic Control
Unit 4 Introduction to Programming
Unit 5A Introduction to Gears
Unit 5B Gears, Speed and Torque
Unit 5C - Simple Machines
Unit 6A - Introduction to Touch Sensors and Basic Electronics
Unit 6B: Light Sensors
Unit 6C: Rotational Sensors
Unit 7 - Conditional Statements and Sensor State, Multitasking, and Variables
Unit 8 - Project management
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Unit 1 Introduction to Robots
Concepts taught:
Evolution of technology
Relationship between science, technology, and society

Standards Addressed in Unit 1 Introduction to Robotics

Resources:
RoboLab PowerPoint presentation demonstrating “Motors and Sounds”
Tankbot building instructions
Sense-Plan-Act PowerPoint presentation


Teacher will:
Prepare a presentation on the evolution of technology and the evolution of robotics; Give examples of the evolution of technology, use examples of either real-world robots or Lego robots.
Have students list robots they’ve seen in the movies and contrast them with today’s robotic technology.
Prepare to discuss basic programming with students. Help them to understand the sequential nature of programming by having them write a step-by-step set of instructions used to complete a task.
Prepare a short demo of the RoboLab control software or open up RoboLab software and demonstrate to students.
Build and program several robots that demonstrate the sensors and control. There are instructions to build a simple robot (tankbot) in the unit on Introduction to Hardware.

Students will:
Participate in a teacher led discussion contrasting robots students have seen on TV and the movies with real world robots and presentation of robotics.
Observe a demonstration of several teacher-supplied robots.
Discuss the sequential nature of basic programming.
Observe a demonstration of RoboLab software and begin to understand how to control a mobile robot.
Discuss Sense-Plan-Act

Activities:
Watch a video on Robotics.
Write a report describing, in a logical, step-by-step, manner how to accomplish a simple task (program a VCR, etc.)

Evaluation:
In Class participation
Teacher observation
Completion of writing assignment
Completion of worksheet
Daily Log
Career Skills Handout
Work Habit Evaluation

Unit 2 Introduction to Hardware
Note to the teacher: This lesson is designed to introduce the student to identifying Lego parts by both part name and size. Students will also learn to read the building instructions for tankbot. Tankbot is a simple but sturdy robot that students can build with a minimum number of parts. Tankbot is structurally sturdy and can be adapted to use a touch, light, and rotational sensor.
Concepts taught:
Mechanics
Teamwork
Systems
Measurement
Interpreting diagrams
Following instructions

Standards Addressed in Unit 2 Introduction to Hardware

Resources:
Lego Parts Reference
Lego Identification Worksheet and Lego Identification Worksheet solutions
Lego Part Quiz and Lego Part Quiz solutions
Tankbot
RoboLab Reference
RoboLab Worksheet and RoboLab Worksheet solutions
Mobile Robot Design Problem
Center of Gravity PowerPoint Presentation

Teacher will:
Prepare a demonstration on how to identify Lego parts.
Place Lego Parts Reference and RoboLab reference on each desktop.
Prepare a demonstration of how to read plans for Tankbot
Build and program several tankbots with sensors, program them, and use them in a demonstration that will show students what they will be asked to accomplish. Plans for the touch sensor, light sensor, and rotational sensor are included in this curriculum.

Students will:
Observe a demonstration of several teacher-supplied robots performing a variety of tasks using multiple sensors.
Participate in a teacher led discussion on how to build Tankbot, a robot that will be used as the platform to study in subsequent lessons.
Observe a presentation on center-of gravity when building robots.
If teacher elects to have student participate in the open ended design problem at the end of this unit, then the student should observe a presentation on building tips.

Activities:
Identification of parts. Open the Lego Robotics Construction set and accurately identify each of the various components
Complete the Lego Parts Identification worksheet or Lego Parts worksheet 2.
Build Tankbot

Evaluation:
In Class Participation
Teacher Observation
Completion of Tankbot
Completion of part identification worksheet
Work Habit Evaluation
Robot Evaluation Criteria

Open Ended Design Challenges:
Mobile Robot Design Problem



Unit 3 Introduction to Software and Electronic Control

Note to the teacher: This unit is an introductory lesson on how to control things using electronics. The worksheets developed are designed to test for the student’s ability to complete basic programming tasks.
Concepts taught:
Electronic control
Polarity
Basic programming
Measurement
Conversion of Units
Proportion
Scientific Method
Logical Thinking
Communications Skills

Standards Addressed
Resources available:
The resources presented here are intended to help the beginning teacher who has never used robolab.
RoboLab PowerPoint Presentation 1 ”Motors, Speeds, and Sounds Programming Solutions”
Basic Programming Exercises
Programming worksheet and Programming Worksheet Solutions
Basic RoboLab worksheet and Basic RoboLab Worksheet Solutions
Human to robot programming challenge
Evolution of Electronic Control Presentation
RCX maintenance PowerPoint Presentation
Electric Generator PowerPoint Presentation

Teacher will:
Prepare a presentation on the evolution of electronic control.
Ask student to give examples of electronic control locally, regionally, and globally.
Preview RoboLab PowerPoint presentations and present them to the class as appropriate. Print programming worksheets 1-6. Programming challenge 1 will be used today and 2-6 will be used when students learn to program.
Using RoboLab software, an IR tower, and a RCX write a program and then download it to a teacher-built robot.
Have students divide into pairs. Have one student act as the programmer and the other the robot. Write a program to have the student pick something up.

Students will:
Participate in a teacher lead discussion on basic programming.
Observe a demonstration of RoboLab, write a simple program, download it and save it.
Complete programming activities as assigned by the teacher.

Activities:
Divide into pairs. One student (blind folded) and the other will “program” him/her to accomplish a simple task.
Write a simple program to move the Tankbot forward for a specific amount of time, download it, run it and save it to a floppy disk.
Write a simple program to move Tankbot forward a specific distance. Use motor speed and time to control distances.
Use basic proportions to predict distance when changing the variable time in the program.
Complete the Programming Exercises worksheet.
Develop a PowerPoint presentation on the data your team developed when calculating time.

Evaluation:
In class participation
Teacher observations
Work Habit Evaluation
Successful completions of software modifications
Successful completions of hardware modifications
Completion of student designed distance worksheet
Completion of programming worksheet
Complete Rubric for Evaluation of RoboLab Programming



Unit 4 Introduction to Programming
Note to the teacher: The PowerPoint programming presentations “RoboLab 1-6” are designed to teach students how to program using RoboLab software. Handouts “RoboLab Programming Problems 1-6” support the presentations and are included on the CD. The hardware needed for these lessons are: an IR tower, a RCX, two motors, a light sensor, a touch sensor, a rotational sensor, and several connecting leads. The lessons begin simple control of outputs using motors and sounds. As the lessons program students begin to explore more advanced topics like variables and timers. The worksheets that accompany these presentations are designed to be completed by the student and kept in their notebooks. In Unit 8 there are PowerPoint presentations that can be used to teach NQC, a syntax based programming language, if you liked this method to teach programming.

Standards Addressed

Introduction to Programming
Concepts taught:
Electronic Control
Analog and digital feedback
Polarity
Programming Concepts
loops
jumps
modifiers
wait states
Measurement
Conversion of units
Circumference
Scientific Method
Logical Thinking
Resources:
RoboLab PowerPoint Presentation 2 “Modifiers, Loops, and Jumps Programming Solutions”
RoboLab PowerPoint Presentation 3 “Sensor Wait-fors Programming Solutions”
RoboLab PowerPoint Presentation 4 “Conditional Statements Programming Solutions”
RoboLab PowerPoint Presentation 5 “Multiple-tasks and Timers Programming Solutions”
RoboLab PowerPoint Presentation 6 “Containers, Programming Solutions”
RoboLab Programming Problems 1-6 and RoboLab Programming Problems 1-6 with solutions
Distance worksheet
Basic Programming Worksheet Answers
RCX worksheet and RCX Worksheet Solutions
RoboLab Quiz and RoboLab Quiz Solution
Robot Programming Worksheet
Slalom design and programming challenge
Robo500 design and programming challenge

Teacher will:
Prepare a presentation, and then lead a discussion on “What is a sensor.”
Lead a discussion on the 5 human senses and how they are used to navigate the world, then compare them to sensors robots use.
Prepare a presentation that demonstrates modifiers, ports, power levels, jumps, and loops using RoboLab.
Write a program, save it, upload it to the robot using the IR tower, and then use this robot to demonstrate modifiers, loops, and jumps.

Students will:
Participate in teacher led discussion on RoboLab icons, modifiers, ports, loops, jumps, lands, and wait states.
Complete teacher assigned problems that use wait states, modifiers, power levels and input & output ports.

Activity:
Modify saved Tankbot program to change power levels and output ports.
Modify Tankbot/Tankbot program to run robot in reverse
Complete Programming Concepts worksheet.
Use the basic programming concepts taught to date to write a program to travel a simple course.
Develop a chart based on trial and error and mathematics that will predict the distance traveled when time is varied.
Present data to class.

Evaluation:
Class participation
Teacher observations
Work Habit Evaluation
Robot Design Evaluation
Successful completions of software modifications
Successful completions of hardware modifications
Completion of robotic distance exploration
Completion of programming worksheets


Unit 5A Introduction to Gears
Concepts taught:
Gears and Speed
Circumference
Conversion of Units
Measurement
Mechanical Advantage
Conversion of units
Simple Machines
Reading Diagrams and Following Directions

Standards Addressed

Resources:
Gear Information
Idler Gear Information
Gearbox activity
Gears PowerPoint Presentation
General Gear Worksheet and General Gear Worksheet Solution
Gears and Speed Worksheet
Lego Gear Combinations
Moving at a Precise Speed
Gears and Distance Lab and Gears and Distance Lab Answers

Teachers will:
Prepare examples of common mechanisms that use gears.
Prepare a demonstration of the various gears use in Lego kits.
Demonstrate how to calculate the gear ratios and predict mechanical advantage.
Provide inquiry based activities that allow students to explore gear ratios and mechanical advantage.

Students will:
Participate in a teacher led discussion on:
Spur gears, bevel gears, and worm gears
How gears change speed and distance
Calculating Gear ratios
Observe a demonstration of changing speeds using gears.

Activities:
List at least 20 common items that use gears
Change speeds on Tankbot using gears.
Complete:
Laboratory investigations on how changing gear ratios on Tankbot changes speed and distance.
Teacher developed worksheet on Gears and Gear Ratios
Teacher developed worksheet on Gears and Speed



Unit 5B Gears, Speed and Torque
Concepts taught:
Force
Power
Work
Torque
Speed
Gears ratios
Mechanical Advantage
Circumference
Conversion of Units
Measurement
Simple Machines
Reading diagrams and following directions

Standards Addressed

Resources:
Mobile robots and strength worksheet
Compound gear ratio worksheet
SumoBot competition challenge
Gearbox crane challenge plans
Applied Physics Worksheet and Applied Physics Worksheet Solutions
Applied Physics PowerPoint Presentation
Compound Gear Ratio PowerPoint

Teachers will:
Use Lego educational technology to develop a presentation showing examples gears and mechanical advantage.
Contrast and compare the inversely proportional relationship between speed and torque when using gears.
Demonstrate how to calculate compound gear ratios.
Develop worksheets that students can use to practice calculations.
Demonstrate the gearbox students will be building.


Students will:
Observe a teacher-developed demonstration of different technologies that use gears.
Participate in teacher led discussion on the difference between force and torque
Participate in teacher led discussions on the inversely proportional relationship between torque and speed when designing gear trains.

Activities:
Build a compound gearbox and measure the speed of the rotating axles.
Modify the gearbox to be used as a crane to lift various sized weights
Complete worksheet on Mobile Robots and Strength
Complete worksheet on Compound Gear Ratios
SumoBot Competition

Evaluation
In class participation
Teacher observation
Work Habit Evaluation
Completion of gearbox and laboratory investigation
Completion of worksheets
Open Ended Design Challenges:
Strongest Mobile Robot



Unit 5C - Simple Machines
Concepts taught:
Work and force
Mechanical Advantage
Geometry
Friction
Measurement
Conversion of units
Simple Machines
Levers
Wheels and Axles
Belts and Pulleys
Gears
Inclined Planes

Standards Addressed

Resources:
PowerPoint Mechanics Presentation
Simple machines web page
Ramp challenge design brief
Teacher assigned design briefs from design challenges page
Caster Wheels Presentation

Teachers will:
Prepare a presentation which:
Describes the relationship between force and work.
Describes friction.
Shows examples of simple machines and how they are used to do work.
Lead a discussion on simple machines and give examples of where they are found in robots.
Build a simple adjustable ramp that can be used for the ramp challenge.


Students will:
Participate in teacher led discussion on the following topics:
Work and force
What is friction?
Calculating mechanical advantage gained from the following simple machines: levers, wheels and axles, pulleys, and gears.
The differences and similarities between gears and pulleys.

Activities:
Using the Tankbot, show how to minimize and maximize friction to your advantage while participating in the ramp challenge
Modify Tankbot to use pulleys and belts instead of gears
Make tankbot faster/slower

Evaluation:
In class participation
Teacher observation
Work Habit Evaluation
Robot Evaluation Criteria
Completion of teacher assigned lab activities.
Open Ended Design Challenges:
Dunk and Run
RoboLift
Catapult

Develop a web page demonstrating Lego and simple machines
Levers
Wheels and Axles
Belts and Pulleys
Gears
Inclined Planes


Unit 6A - Introduction to Touch Sensors and Basic Electronics
Concepts taught:
Human Senses
What is a Robot
(S-P-A)
Electronic Control
Touch Sensors and Basic Electronics
Electric current
Controlling Current
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Digital Feedback
Analog Feedback
Logical Thinking
Programming Concepts
Conditional statements
Wait states
Control loops

**Standards Addressed**

Resources:
Sensors PowerPoint Presentations
Touch Sensor
Touch Sensor Building Instructions
Sample Touch Sensor Programs
BugBot Building Instructions
Touch Sensor Worksheet 1 and Touch Sensor Worksheet 1 Solution
Touch Sensor Worksheet 2 with Solution

Teachers will:
Review Sense-Plan-Act (SPA) concept with the class.
Prepare a lesson contrasting the 5 human senses to how robots interpret what’s in their environment
Demonstrate the difference between analog and digital feedback.
Build and attach a touch sensor to tankbot, and demonstrate how the touch sensor works. Here are several examples of programs using touch sensors.

Students will:
Review S-P-A
Participate in a teacher led discussion on how robots use sensors to learn about their environment.
Participate in a teacher led discussion on touch sensors.
Design a touch sensor and attach it to tankbot.
Complete a teacher assigned challenge involving programming and touch sensors.

Activities:
Using teacher-supplied instructions, build a bumper for Tankbot that uses a touch sensor.
Program Tankbot with the touch sensor bumper to backup and turn around when it has run into something.
Write a program that lets you control Tankbot using touch sensors as a remote control.
Use touch sensors in conjunction with wait-for statements, program control loops, and touch sensor conditional statements to control design an autonomous robot.




Evaluation:
Class Participation
Teacher Observation
Work Habit Evaluation
Completion of Touch Sensor Bumper
Successful completion of programming exercises
Complete one of the following teacher assigned activities:
RoboMazing
Touch Sensor Activity



Unit 6B: Light Sensors
Concepts taught:
Light, reflection of light
Electromagnetic spectrum
Measurement
Analog Feedback
Calculating thresholds
Logical Thinking
Programming Concepts
Conditional Statements
Wait States
Variables
Calculating Thresholds
Loops

Standards Addressed

Resources:
Light Sensor Worksheet and Light Sensor Worksheet Solution
Light Sensor Building Instructions
Light Sensor Programming Examples
Light Sensor PowerPoint Presentation
Light Sensor Info
Design Briefs
Table bot
Firefly bot
RoboLinerunner

Teachers will:
Prepare a lesson on various types of vision systems used in robotics today. Including sonar, laser, infrared, and stereovision systems.
Contrast and compare the various types of vision systems.
Demonstrate how to program using a light sensor.
Explain what a threshold is and demonstrate how to calculate it.

Students will:
Participate in a teacher led discussion on how light sensors can be used in conjunction with wait-for statements, program control loops, and light sensor conditional statements to make robots autonomous.
Activities:
Use teacher-supplied instructions and add a light sensor to Tankbot.
Program Tankbot to react to a black or white surface.
Program Tankbot with a light sensor to follow a black and white edge.
Complete worksheet on light sensors.

Evaluation:
Class Participation
Teacher Observation
Work Habit Evaluation
Completion of light sensor mount
Completion of programming exercises.
Completion of Worksheets.
Complete one of the following teacher assigned activities:
Firefly Bot
Table Bot
RoboTracker
Light Activity


Unit 6C: Rotational Sensors
Concepts taught:
Parts of a circle
Measurement
Rotational speed
Angular Rotation
Distance
Reading Diagrams and Following Instructions
Logical Thinking
Programming Concepts
Conditional Statements
Wait States
Loops
Encoders

Standards Addressed

Resources:
Rotational Sensor Tankbot Building Instructions
Rotational Sensor PowerPoint Presentation
Rotational Sensor PowerPoint Presentation 2
Rotational Sensor Worksheet 1
Rotational Sensor Worksheet 2
Circumference PowerPoint
Rotational Sensors and Distance 1
Rotational Sensors and Distance 2
Rotational Sensor Investigations Fractions (Lab Activity)
Measuring Rotational Speed and Compound Gear Ratios Lab
Word Problems (These word problems include 19 pages of applied mathematics from real-world robots)

Teachers will:
Prepare a presentation on how robots use rotational sensors/encoders to accurately move from point to point.
Attach, program, and demonstrate to the class how to use rotational sensors to accurately move a robot from point to point.
Prepare a presentation showing students how to accurately calculate the values for the rotational sensors attached to their robots.
Select activities for students to test using rotational sensors.

Students will:
Participate in a teacher led discussion on what a rotational sensor measures and how rotational sensors can be used in conjunction with wait-for statements, program control loops, and rotational sensor conditional statements to control autonomous robots.
Participate in a teacher led discussion on the use of rotational sensors to measure the speed of rotating axles using compound gear trains.
Complete the teacher assigned activities:
Using teacher-supplied instructions, install a rotational sensor on Tankbot.
Participate in a teacher led review of the relationships between radius, diameter, circumference and linear distance.
Complete an investigation on rotational sensors and distance.
Complete worksheet on rotational sensors and distance.
Complete the teacher assigned investigations on Measuring Rotational Speed and Compound Gear Ratios.
Line Painter Bot
Robo500
RoboMazing
BotMower
Rotational Senor Lab

Evaluation
Class Participation
Teacher Observation
Work Habit Evaluation
Robot Evaluation Sheet
Completion of rotational sensor installation.
Completion of worksheet on:
Rotational sensors and distance.
Measuring rotational speed using compound gear ratios.



Unit 7 - Conditional Statements and Sensor State, Multitasking, and Variables
Concepts taught:
Electronic control
Measurement
Conversion of Units
Basic Algebra
Geometry
Trigonometry
Logical Thinking
Programming concepts
Loops
Conditional Statements
Variables
Mathematic functions and variables
Resetting sensors
Timers
Multitasking

Standards Addressed

Resources
Advance Programming Worksheet and Advanced Programming Worksheet Solutions
Containers and Timers PowerPoint Presentation
Programming examples of multitasking, variables, and timers
Advance Programming Worksheet PDF

Teachers will:
Prepare presentations on:
Containers (variables)
Timers
Multitasking
Build and Program a robot to use containers, timers, and multitasking to move autonomously to complete a task.

Students will:
Participate in a teacher led discussion on timers, program control loops, and timer forks to control autonomous robots.
Participate in teacher-led review of conditional statements, including touch sensor, light sensor, temperature sensor and rotational sensor forks.
Participate in a student led discussion to write a line follower with a time fork program.
Participate in a teacher led discussion on the use of task splits to perform multiple simultaneous tasks

Evaluation
Class Participation
Teacher Observation
Work Habit Evaluation
Robot Evaluation Tool
Activities:
Complete one of the following teacher assigned robotics exercises:
Legoclock
Four legged walker
Robot to sense gravity
Pipe Bot 1
Pipe Bot 2


Unit 8 - Project Management
Concepts Taught
Time Management
Resource Allocation
Systems
Information Accessing
Teaming
Problem Solving
How to use software to manage and document a project
Word
PowerPoint
Home Pages
Excel
Presentation Skills
Public Speaking
Poise
Logical Order of Presentation

Standards Addressed

Resources:
Breaking into Problem Solving Teams
Helpful Hints About Problem Solving
Writing good design briefs
GANTT chart handout
Design Review handout
Robot Design Problem
Career Skills
Daily Log
Work Habit Evaluation

Teacher will:
Prepare students by giving them introductory lessons on:
Mechanics
Programming
Sensors
Choose from the following handouts and print ones the class may need:
Breaking into Problem Solving Teams
Helpful Hints About Problem Solving
GANTT chart handout
Design Review handout
Career Skills
Daily Log
Work Habit Evaluation
Discuss working in teams.
Choose an open-ended design problem for the class to work on.

Students will:
Design, build, program, and refine an autonomous robot to solve the problem.
Identify the problem
Select leaders
Divide the problem into parts
Develop a GANTT chart

Evaluation
Class Participation
Teacher Evaluation
Work Habit Evaluation
Project Completion
Presentation

Complete rubric for evaluation of multifaceted project
Samples:
Work Habit Evaluation Form
Daily Log
/Teachers/Robotics Class Information/Criteria for Evaluation
/Teachers/Robotics Class Information/Evaluation form for mobile robot